Wounds cost the health system $3.9 billion annually (approximately 3 percent of total healthcare expenditures), and individuals with chronic wounds experience harmful consequences including intractable pain, infectious complications, hospitalization, reduced quality of life, depression, and increased risk of death [Wounds, National Stakeholder Round-table, June 2012].
Wound healing is a complex process. Many factors have to be considered for ideal wound healing to occur.
The wound-healing process consists of four highly integrated and overlapping phases:
- Tissue remodeling
Wounds that exhibit impaired healing, including delayed acute wounds and chronic wounds, generally have failed to progress through the normal stages of healing.
Such wounds frequently enter a state of pathologic inflammation due to a postponed, incomplete, or uncoordinated healing process.
Multiple factors can lead to impaired wound healing. The factors that influence repair can be categorized into local and systemic.
Oxygen is important for cell metabolism, especially energy production and is critical for nearly all wound-healing processes. Oxygen also
- Prevents infection
- Induces Blood vessel formation
- Increases skin formation
- Promotes Wound contraction
In wounds where oxygenation is not restored, healing is impaired. Temporary hypoxia after injury triggers wound healing, but prolonged or chronic hypoxia delays wound healing (Bishop, 2008; Rodriguez et al., 2008).
In addition, the level of superoxide production (a key factor for oxidative killing pathogens) by polymorphonuclear leukocytes is critically dependent on oxygen levels.
Hence proper oxygen level is crucial for optimum wound healing.
Once skin is injured, micro-organisms that are normally cleared at the skin surface obtain access to the underlying tissues as below
- Local infection
- Invasive infection
Inflammation is a normal part of the wound-healing process, and is important to the removal of contaminating micro-organisms. In the absence of effective decontamination, however, inflammation may be prolonged, since microbial clearance is incomplete.
This leads to resistant Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and β-hemolytic streptococci to colonize the chronic wound and render antibiotics ineffective.
Both bacteria and their toxins cause this prolonged inflammatory phase and increase the risk to development of a chronic wound and lead to degradation of crucial healing growth factors.
The most common causes of chronic wounds are
- Venous Disease
- Chronic wounds are also notably hypoxic.
P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus appear to play an important role in bacterial infection in wounds. Many chronic ulcers probably do not heal because of the presence of biofilms containing P. aeruginosa, thus shielding the bacteria from the phagocytic activity of invading polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs).
This mechanism may explain the failure of antibiotics as a remedy for chronic wounds (Bjarnsholt et al., 2008). Several systemic conditions, including advancing age and diabetes, can create impaired vascular flow, thus setting the stage for poor tissue oxygenation. In the context of healing, this overlay of poor perfusion creates a hypoxic wound.
Systemic Factors That Influence Healing
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- Alcohol Consumption
- Non- steroidal Anti-inflammatories
- Systemic Glucocorticoids
- Chemotherapy Agents
Importantly, though, many of the obesity-related changes in peripheral immune function are improved by weight loss (Nieman et al., 1999; Fontana et al., 2007; de Mello et al., 2008).
Regenera uses effective methods to heal both acute and chronic wounds, by enhancing both local and systemic factors. Our technique includes the use of Cellular Prolotherapy in the form of autologous platelets, fat and stem cells, Hyperbaric oxygen, Ozonotherapy and Nutritional support. Our results are life changing.
If you have been battling with a wound with little to no results call us to book now.